Hva er landlig markedsføring?

Alt du trenger å vite om landlig markedsføring. Omtrent to tredjedeler av folket, spesielt i utviklingslandene, bor i landlige områder og er avhengig av landbruk og beslektede aktiviteter for deres levebrød.

I urbane områder blir produksjonen fra gården, dvs. mat, fiber og andre råvarer bearbeidet og gjort tilgjengelig for forbrukerne.

Landlig markedsføring er en samling av det utviklede produktet, fornuftig pris, passende plassering og riktig bevissthet. Markedsføringsregelen sier at riktig produkt, til riktig pris, til rett sted, til rett tid, gjennom riktig medium, skal nå riktig kunde.

Denne samme regelen er også bra for landlig markedsføring. I samsvar med landskommisjonen,

"Markedsføring på landsbygda er en prosess som starter med en beslutning om å produsere en salgbar gårdsvare og den involverer alle aspektene ved markedsstruktur eller system, både funksjonelle og institusjonelle, basert på tekniske og økonomiske hensyn, og inkluderer operasjoner før og etter høsting, montering, gradering, lagring, transport og distribusjon. ”

Lære om:

1. Introduksjon til landlig markedsføring 2. Definisjoner av landlig markedsføring 3. Betydning og omfang av landlig markedsføring 4. Funksjoner 5. Landlig miljø

6. Behov for å utforske landdistriktsmarkedene 7. Faktorer som bidrar til veksten av landsbygdsmarkedet 8. Begrensninger 9. Markedsføringskommunikasjon i landlige markeder 10. Nye dimensjoner av indisk landlig markedsføring

11. Organisering og arbeid av landlige markeder 12. Landlige forbrukere og deres oppførsel 13. Betydningen 14. Mulighetene med landlige markeder i India.

Hva er landlig markedsføring: Definisjoner, mening, funksjoner, landlige omgivelser, nye dimensjoner, viktighet og andre detaljer


Innhold:

  1. Introduksjon til landlig markedsføring
  2. Definisjoner av Rural Marketing
  3. Betydning og omfang av landlig markedsføring
  4. Funksjoner ved landlig markedsføring
  5. Landlig miljø
  6. Behov for å utforske landlige markeder
  7. Faktorer som bidrar til veksten av landsbygdsmarkedet
  8. Begrensninger i landlig markedsføring
  9. Markedsføringskommunikasjon i landlige markeder
  10. Nye dimensjoner av indisk landlig markedsføring
  11. Organisering og arbeid av landlige markeder
  12. Landlige forbrukere og deres atferd
  13. Betydningen av landlig markedsføring
  14. Mulighetene med landlig marked i India

Hva er Rural Marketing - Introduksjon

Det indiske markedet for forbrukerprodukter består av to forskjellige deler, det ene er urbant og det andre er det landlige markedet. Det har vært et spørsmål om stor forespørsel både for markedsakademikerne og utøverne om det er behov for å utvikle en egen strategi for landlige markeder.

I det store og hele viser det indiske markedsscenariet at markedsførere sjelden har kommet ut med en egen markedsføringsstrategi for landlige markeder åpenlyst, men markedsførere utviklet imidlertid en egen markedsføringsmiks for landlige markeder skjult. Når det er markedsføring på landsbasis for deres merkevarer, hadde markedsføreren en tendens til å prissette produktene sine lave, holde produktkvaliteten på et gjennomsnittlig nivå, og redusere kostnadene på de ekstra krusene som er lagt til produktet.

Essensen i denne avhandlingen ligger i å åpne for en debatt om behovet for en egen markedsføringsstrategi i sammenheng med unike funksjoner i det landlige markedet sammenlignet med det urbane markedet. I det følgende presenterer vi en ramme eller en oversikt over markedsstrategi for markedsføring på landsbygda.

Omfanget av det landlige markedet gir både en utfordring og en mulighet for markedsførerne. Ønsket om å forbedre levestandarden merkes like sterkt i landlige områder som i byområdene. Landlige inntekter øker og fattigdomsgraden synker.

Markedsføringsstrategien for å benytte dette enorme markedspotensialet må ta hensyn til de spesielle kjennetegnene på landsbygda, holdninger og sosio-psykologiske kjennetegn på landsbygda.

Å forbedre markedsføringskanalene og distribusjonsstedene og kommunikasjonsfasilitetene kan faktisk handle om en transformasjon av landsbygda.

Utformingen og utviklingen av en markedsføringsstrategi må i hovedsak strømme fra en grundig forståelse av forbrukeren, i denne sammenhengen er det den landlige forbrukeren. Derfor i første omgang må den forbrukere på landsbygda forstås og deretter forskjellene mellom den landlige og urbane forbrukeren.

Landsbygdsforbrukeren er i de fleste tilfeller analfabeter, en lav inntekt forbruker, mer prissensitiv, mer av sosial interaksjon i sin gruppe, psykologisk emosjonell, ledet av meningsledere, har lavere ambisjonsnivå og har etterligningsegenskaper. Denne faktummatrisen fører til en større utfordring å takle forbrukeren på landsbygda.

Markedsføreren på landsbygda må undersøke:

(a) Markedsdeling etter markedspotensialer som vil hjelpe vurderingen av markedene etter forbrukernes etterspørsel og kjøpsevne.

(b) Forbrukeratferd og forbrukernes prioriteringer og preferanser i forbrukerutgifter, kjøpskilder, kvantitet for hvert kjøp og tid og kjøpsbetingelser.

(c) Hvordan best vinne fremfor forbrukere på landsbygda, og utnytte medier effektivt.

(d) Hvem er de katalytiske forandringsmidlene, og hvilken rolle kan de utføre overfor produktene?

På denne bakgrunn av den forbrukere på landsbygda må markedsføringsstrategien utvikles. Videre er det begrensninger knyttet til landlige markeder, utilgjengeligheten, spredte landsbyer, uprofesjonelle forhandlere.


What is Rural Marketing - Definisjoner av eksperter: Thomsen, GN Murthy, TP Gopalaswamy og noen få andre

Det er forskjellige eksperter som har definert landlig markedsføring.

Noen av definisjonene av eksperter har gitt nedenfor:

Thomsen definerte landlig markedsføring som, ”Studien av landlig markedsføring består av alle operasjoner, og byråene som gjennomfører dem, involvert i bevegelsen av gårdsprodusert mat, råvarer og derivater derav, som tekstiler, fra gårdene til sluttkundene., og effekten av slike operasjoner på produsenter, mellommenn og forbrukere. ”

I følge GN Murthy - "Markedsføring på landsbygda er studien av all aktivitet, byrå og politikk som er involvert i anskaffelsen av gårdsinnsats fra bøndene og bevegelsen av landlige produkter fra bønder til forbrukere."

I følge TP Gopalaswamy - “Markedsføring på landsbygda er en toveis prosess som omfatter utslipp av forretningsvirksomhet som styrer varestrømmen fra by til land (produserte varer) og vice versa (landbruksprodukter) som også i landlige områder ”.

Ifølge National Commission on Agriculture are - “Markedsføring av landdistrikter er en prosess som starter med en beslutning om å produsere en salgbar gårdsvare, og den involverer alle aspektene ved markedsstruktur eller system, både funksjonell og institusjonell, basert på tekniske og økonomiske hensyn og inkluderer før og etter høsting, montering, gradering, lagring, transport og distribusjon.

Så vi konkluderer med at markedsføring på landsbygda med enkle ord er planlegging og implementering av markedsføringsfunksjon for landlige områder.

Noen av eksemplene på selskaper som er involvert i markedsføring på landsbygda er:

(a) De to store Cola-merkene Coca-Cola og Pepsi bortsett fra deres vanlige kamp om markedsandeler, har prøvd hardt å komme inn i landlige markeder. De har kommet med mange markedsføringsstrategier som priser, distribusjonsstrategier osv., Som å tilby isbokser, kjøleskap, kredittfasiliteter etc.

Å vinne det landlige markedet har vært den tøffeste jobben for begge merkene. Selv om de stort sett er populære i urbane markeder, vil ikke merkevarebildet få dem lojale kunder på landsbygda. Både Coke og Pepsi har gjort store anstrengelser for å trenge dypt inn i landlige markeder ved å øke forhandler- og distribusjonsnettverket betydelig og med innovative markedsføringsstrategier.

(b) Dabur har oppskalert raskt og overgått det opprinnelige målet om å betjene 30 000 landsbyer i løpet av 18 måneder. Salgsveksten er nå 42% høyere i landlige markeder enn sine urbane markeder, selv om de samlede bruttomarginene er forbedret.


Hva er landlig markedsføring - mening og omfang

På grunn av hard konkurranse i både nasjonale og globale markeder, flytter selskaper nå fra urbane områder til landlige områder. Bedrifter etablerer seg på landsbygda ved å utvikle og oppgradere kunnskapen om produktene sine og skape et segment av nødvendighet for sine produkter blant kundene. De rurale områdene var ubetydelig tappet, men økende globalisering har tvunget markedsførere til å komme i kontakt med landdistriktsmarkedene.

Landlig markedsføring er en samling av det utviklede produktet, fornuftig pris, passende plassering og riktig bevissthet. Markedsføringsregelen sier at riktig produkt, til riktig pris, til rett sted, til rett tid, gjennom riktig medium, skal nå riktig kunde. Den samme regelen er også bra for landlig markedsføring.

I løpet av de siste tiårene har det indiske landlige markedet blitt fremtredende på grunn av kjøpekraften til landsbygda. De landlige områdene konsumerer en stor mengde produkter produsert i urbane områder; derfor får landdistriktsmarkedet større betydning enn bymarkedet. I dag leter markedsførerne etter utvidelse i det uutnyttede landlige markedet.

Majoriteten av den indiske befolkningen bor i landlige områder; derfor er det et stort rom for markedsføring i det landlige India.

En organisasjon følger markedsføring på landsbygda av følgende grunner:

en. Rural Befolkning - Består av mer enn 720 millioner mennesker og danner et enormt marked for organisasjoner.

b. Rural Economy - Bidrar betydelig i landets BNP. Rural India har et stort antall husholdninger som er klar over merkevareproduktene og er villige til å kjøpe dem.

c. Forholdet mellom landsbyøkonomi og byøkonomi - refererer til økonomisk tilkobling mellom landlige og urbane områder.


Hva er landlig markedsføring - Topp 9 funksjoner : Lav levestandard, tradisjonell utsikter, infrastrukturanlegg, markedsvekst, kjøpskapasitet og noen få andre

For å fokusere det landlige markedet og utvikle effektive strategier for å utnytte markedspotensialet i det landlige markedet, er det nødvendig for selskapene å kjenne til funksjonene i Rural Market, som beskrives som følger:

Funksjon nr. 1. Stort, mangfoldig og spredt marked:

Landlig marked i India er stort og spredt i en rekke regioner. Det består av omtrent 75 crores landlige forbrukere som bor i 6 388 655 landsbyer spredt over 32 lakh kvadratkilometer stort område. Det er spredt og utbredt over 6, 30 lakh-landsbyer, i motsetning til det urbane markedet som er begrenset til en håndfull metroer, kosmopolitiske byer og tettsteder. Dekking, et så stort og vidt spredt geografisk marked, preget av mindre befolkning per bosetting, hever lager- og transportkostnadene og påvirker dermed levedyktigheten av rutetidsplanen for distribusjonssystemet i landlige områder.

Funksjon 2. Større inntekt for landlige forbrukere er fra jordbruk :

Landlig velstand er knyttet til velstand i landbruket. Størstedelen av inntektene til landsbygda kommer fra jordbruk. I tilfelle avlingsfeil påvirkes inntekten til landlige masser direkte. Den siste tiden har imidlertid hatt en gradvis reduksjon i den eneste avhengigheten av landbruket, ettersom andre sektorer har begynt å spille en betydelig rolle i landsbygdsøkonomien.

Funksjon 3. Lav levestandard :

Landsbybefolkningen er ansatt i småskala landbruks- og beslektede yrker. Denne upålitelighetsfaktoren når det gjelder inntekt på landsbygda, gjør forbrukere på landsbygda ekstremt bevisste i kjøpsatferd, da de ikke er sikre på fremtidig inntekt. Størstedelen av befolkningen på landsbygda lever under fattigdomsgrensen og har lav literacy rate, lav inntekt per innbygger, sosial backwardness etc.

I tillegg er tradisjoner, religiøst press, kulturelle verdier og dypt forankrede overtro de hindrende faktorene for en sosial mobilitet oppover. Velstanden for å spare til fremtidige livssyn gjør at bygdefolk bruker mindre på å forbedre sin levestandard selv når de har god inntekt.

Funksjon 4. Tradisjonell Outlook :

Landsbyene utvikler seg sakte og har et tradisjonelt syn. Endring er kontinuerlig prosess, men de fleste landlige mennesker godtar endringer gradvis. De motstår for det meste å endre seg. Dette endrer seg gradvis på grunn av leseferdighet, spesielt blant ungdommene som har begynt å endre utsiktene i landsbyene.

Funksjon nr. 5. Infrastrukturfasiliteter :

Mangelfull infrastruktur er den viktigste faktoren som skiller urbane og landlige markeder. Infrastrukturanleggene som sementert vei, lager, kommunikasjonssystem og økonomiske fasiliteter er utilstrekkelige i landlige områder. Opprykk og fysisk distribusjon blir dermed veldig vanskelig i landlige områder på grunn av mangelfulle infrastrukturelle fasiliteter, noe som har økt omfanget av markedsføring på landsbygda.

Funksjon nr. 6. Markedsvekst :

Det rurale markedet vokser jevnlig med årene. Etterspørselen etter tradisjonelle produkter, som sykler, landbruksinnganger, FMCG Products etc. har også vokst gjennom årene. Veksten har ikke bare vært kvantitativ, men også kvalitativ.

Dette var resultatet av nye sysselsettingsmuligheter og nye inntektskilder som ble gjort tilgjengelig gjennom utviklingsprogrammer for landdistrikter som har resultert i grønne og hvite revolusjoner og en revolusjon i økende forventninger til landlige masser. Etterspørselen etter produkter som sykler, landbruksprodukter, gårdsprodukter etc. har også vokst gjennom årene. Dette resulterer i økende potensial i landsbygda.

Funksjon # 7. Diverse sosioøkonomisk bakgrunn :

På grunn av spredning av geografiske områder og ujevn fruktbarhet i landet, har bygdefolk en egen sosioøkonomisk bakgrunn, noe som til slutt påvirker det rurale markedet. Landsbyboere tilhører forskjellige religioner, kultur og sosiale grupper. Sosiokulturell bakgrunn påvirker forbrukernes vilje til å akseptere innovasjoner og nye produkter på forskjellige områder.

Variasjonene i atferd på grunn av geografisk, yrkesmessig, demografisk og atferdsmessig forbrukermiljø, påvirker livsstilen og skaper helt forskjellige behovssett på forskjellige områder. Dette skaper behov for å segmentere det landlige markedet for å imøtekomme det effektivt og lønnsomheten.

Funksjon 8. Literacy in Rural Area :

Leseferdighetsgraden er lav i landlige områder sammenlignet med urbane områder og fører til kommunikasjonsproblemet i markedsføringsøyemed. Med lave leseferdigheter blir utskriftsmedium ineffektive og i en grad irrelevant i landlige områder siden rekkevidden er dårlig.

Avhengigheten er mer av elektroniske medier - kino, radio og fjernsyn, men leseferdighetsnivået på landsbygda har blitt bedre i den rurale fortiden. Landlige mennesker har begynt å dra til urbane områder for høyere utdanning. Til og med regjeringen har innført forskjellige ordninger for landsdelsutdanning. Bevisstheten har økt, og bøndene er godt informert om verden rundt dem. De utdanner seg også til den nye teknologien rundt seg og håper på en bedre livsstil.

Funksjon nr. 9. Innkjøpskapasitet :

Kjøpekraften til folket i landlige områder avhengig av flere direkte og indirekte faktorer relatert til landsbygdsøkonomien. Markedsføring av jordbruksoverskudd og landlige - urbane handelsvilkår er de viktigste kildene til kjøpekraft for landlige forbrukere. I stor grad er indisk jordbruk avhengig av nedbør.

Derfor er etterspørselen etter forbruksvarer på landsbygda indirekte påvirket av nedbøren. Dette resulterer i utilstrekkelig kjøpekraft for forbrukere på landsbygda. Men nå øker en dags kjøpekraft for bygdefolket fordi regjeringen bruker enorme mengder penger på vanning, flomkontroll, infrastrukturutvikling, ordninger mot fattigdom, subsidier osv.

Derfor er markedsførere interessert i å utvikle markedet på landsbygda. Media har nådd til landsbygda, så det blir enkelt for markedsføreren å selge produkt på landsbygda. Markedsførere har innsett potensialet i landlige markeder og utvider dermed virksomheten i det landlige India.


Hva er landlig markedsføring - landlig miljø

Omtrent to tredjedeler av folket, spesielt i utviklingslandene, bor i landlige områder og er avhengig av landbruk og beslektede aktiviteter for deres levebrød. I urbane områder blir produksjonen fra gården, dvs. mat, fiber og andre råvarer bearbeidet og gjort tilgjengelig for forbrukerne.

Landlige omgivelser er nært knyttet til naturen som jordbruksland, skog, elver, fjell osv., Mens miljøet er menneskeskapt i urbane områder. På landsbygda er sosiale kontakter personlige og relativt langvarige. I urbane områder er forholdene upersonlige, tilfeldige og stort sett kortvarige.

Landlige områder refererer til landskap som er tynt befolkede steder og skiller seg fra tettbygde byområder. Landsbygda bor i landsbyer, på gårder og i isolerte hus. Livsstilen i landlige områder er forskjellig fra urbane områder på grunn av tjenester med begrenset tilgjengelighet som skoler, banker, sykehus, biblioteker, avløp, gatebelysning, offentlig transport og telekommunikasjonsanlegg.

De grunnleggende fasilitetene som bolig, helse, utdanning, vannforsyning, veier, kommunikasjon og transport er dårlige i de fleste landsbygda. Halvparten av menneskene på landsbygda lever i usunne og urene omgivelser. Fattigdom, arbeidsledighet og mangel på økonomiske ressurser for å modernisere jordbruket og starte små næringer er de andre problemene som bygdefolk står overfor. Det landlige miljøet er forskjellig fra bymiljøet.


Hva er landlig markedsføring - behov for å utforske landlige markeder: voksende landlige markeder, sterk konkurranse i store urbane markeder og noen få andre

Mange selskaper som har gode produksjonsfasiliteter og markedsføringskompetanse, fokuserer på landlige markeder da det er muligheter for å markedsføre forbruksvarer og tjenester i landlige områder og også markedsføre landbruksprodukter i urbane markeder.

1. Voksende landsbygdsmarked:

Bortsett fra landbruksprodukter er det et voksende marked for forbruksvarer på landsbygda. Ifølge NCAER representerer forbrukere på landsbygda mer enn 50 prosent av Indias "forbrukerklasser" og utgjør målgruppen for forbruksvarer og tjenester.

2. Alvorlig konkurranse i større urbane markeder:

Intensiv konkurranse i bymarkedet har resultert i økning i kostnader, men ikke høy markedsandel og fortjeneste. Mange selskaper har tatt ledelsen når det gjelder å etablere sine produkter i landlige markeder.

Eksempel - HUL, Colgate, Marico, Nirma, LG Electronics.

3. For å endre holdningen til bøndene slik at de behandler landbruket som en virksomhet:

Tradisjonelt har bønder behandlet jordbruket som en levesett, og de produserte akkurat nok mengder til å oppfylle familiens behov. Mange progressive bønder har økt avkastningen av avlinger ved å følge moderne landbrukspraksis. Selv småbønder vil bli oppfordret til å øke produksjonen. Når landbruket er godt utviklet, vil bøndenes inntekter gå opp som et resultat av høyt omsettelig overskudd. Dette gir god etterspørsel etter industri- og forbruksvarer.

4. Markedsføring på landsbygda skaper sysselsettingsmuligheter:

Diversifisering av landbruket, utvikling av næringer på landsbynivå og markedsføring av moderne varer og tjenester gir sysselsettingsmuligheter.

Examples-

(a) Når forsikringsselskapene blir mer og mer landlige på jakt etter virksomhet, vil det være muligheter i landsbygda. De som forstår det landlige India vil være etterspurt.

(b) På grunn av høy utmattelsesgrad og økende kostnader for menneskelige ressurser, flytter mange BPO-selskaper til innlandet på jakt etter billigere og lojale talentbassenger. Selv programvarefirmaer setter opp sentre i mindre byer. I landlige områder vil lønningene være opptil 50 prosent lavere enn byer og eiendommer omtrent fem ganger rimeligere, noe som resulterer i kostnadskonkurranse.

(c) Regjeringen planlegger å etablere en kjede av profesjonelle institutter på landsbygda på offentlig-privat partnerskapsbasis for å produsere fagarbeidere til bilindustrien. Departementet for landsbygdsutvikling har også gått inn for forslaget og har tilbudt å utvide økonomisk og annen støtte. Instituttene kan være lik de eksisterende industrielle opplæringsinstitutter.

5. Landlig turisme:

Inkluderer en rekke aktiviteter, tjenester og fasiliteter levert av bygdefolk til turister. De brede områdene som dekkes er kultur- og gårdsturisme, naturferie og turnering i landlige områder. Landsbyens livsstil og tradisjonell gjestfrihet er andre attraksjoner for turister. Mange urbane mennesker vil velge landlig turisme siden det gir en mulighet til å gå tilbake til røttene (landsbyene) og være borte fra presset fra bylivet. Landlig turisme genererer sysselsettingsmuligheter og økning i inntekt for landsbyboere. I tillegg gjør ferier på landsbygda den unge bybefolkningen til å oppleve livet på landsbygda.

Examples-

(a) Kushti (Wrestling) Carnival i Kundal (Sangli District, Maharashtra) tiltrekker seg nær to lakh mennesker.

(b) Vinnere i Maharashtra har startet vinturisme. Tanken med å ha vinturisme er å få besøkende til å bo i vingård, se vingården og få en følelse av vinproduksjonsprosess. Dette vil også tillate å nyte drinken.

(c) Jallikattu (temming av oksen) gjennomført under høstfestivalen i Pongal har blitt en del av turismepakken til Tamil Nadu.

(d) Rajasthan har blitt presentert som et reisemål med forter, palasser, sandsteiner, malerier, keramikk, landsbyhåndverk og samfunnsunderholdning.

(e) Purushwadi, en landsby som ligger 180 km. fra Mumbai har blitt et turistsenter på grunn av innsatsen til “Grass Routes”, en organisasjon som promoterer landsbyturisme. Startet i 2006, over 60 husstander ønsker gjester velkommen til å være sammen med dem og oppleve landsbylivet og besøke hill-tempelet, vandre, jobbe på gården, bade i elven, etc.

6. Over 70 prosent av landets befolkning bor i landlige områder:

Med et veldig stort forbrukergrunnlag har landlige markeder et enormt potensial og selskaper ser for seg de landlige markedene som morgendagens markeder.

Mellomklassesegmentet er det urbane India, og er allerede godt betjent. Imidlertid er landlige markeder dårlig betjent med hensyn til bank, forsikring, grunnleggende helsehjelp, utdanning og bolig. I tillegg er penetrasjonen av firehjulinger, kjøleskap, farge-tv, etc. lav i landlige områder, og det er enorme muligheter for kreative markedsførere.

7. merkevarelojalitet:

På grunn av lav inntekt er de fleste forbrukere på landsbygda prisbevisste. Imidlertid vil de fortsette å nedlatende et merke når de er fornøyd med produktet.

Eksempel - Parle Biscuits er fortsatt populært blant lokale merkevarer.

8. Utenlandsk konkurranse:

Utenlandske selskaper som kommer inn i det indiske markedet, fokuserer normalt på urbane forbrukere. Derfor er det mindre konkurranse i landlige markeder.

9. Utvikling av regionalt TV-nettverk:

Har gjort det mulig for markedsførere å videreformidle meldingene om produkter og tjenester til landsbygda.

Examples-

(a) Den yngre landsbygenerasjonen har en betydelig eksponering for forskjellige medier i løpet av den tidligere generasjonen, og de liker å etterligne sine urbane kolleger. Barn spiller en viktig rolle i å påvirke kjøpsbeslutningen på landsbygda.

(b) I kategorien kjeks lanserte Britannia Tiger-merket med barn i tankene. Kjeksene målrettet barn med tagline 'Tiger Khao, kuch banke dikhao'.

10. Livssyklusfordel:

Mange produkter når et modnings- / nedgangsfase i urbane områder mens de i landlige områder fortsatt er i vekstfasen.


Hva er landlig markedsføring - faktorer som bidrar til veksten : gunstige regjeringspolitikker, landbruksutvikling, utvikling av indisk økonomi og noen få andre

Faktor nr. 1. Gunstige regjeringspolitikker:

Mahatma Gandhi har med rette sagt, "India bor i landsbyer, og for å bli en utviklet nasjon, må landsbyer utvikles." Regjeringen har tatt initiativ til økonomisk utvikling av landlige områder og har gjennom femårsplaner investert mye i utvikling av landbruk, dyrehold, vanning, elektrisitet, meieri og khadi og landsbyindustri og infrastrukturanlegg. I den tiende femårsplanen ble utviklingen av jordbruk og landlige områder, transport, kommunikasjon, elektrisitet og sosiale tjenester som helse, utdanning, sysselsetting, høyt prioritert.

Dr. Manmohan Singh snakket nylig om sin visjon for India. "Min visjon for India i landlige omgivelser er at moderne agrarisk, industriell og tjenesteøkonomisk side eksisterer side om side, hvor folk kan bo i velutstyrte landsbyer og enkelt pendle til jobb, det være seg på gården eller i den ikke-gården økonomi. Det er mye som moderne vitenskap og teknologi kan gjøre for å realisere denne visjonen. Landlige inntekter må økes. Landlig infrastruktur må forbedres. Landlige helse- og utdanningsbehov må dekkes. Det må skapes sysselsettingsmuligheter på landsbygda. ”

Landlig utvikling er et omfattende program og inkluderer vekst i landbruk, landsbyindustri, servicesektor og utvikling av bolig, folkehelse, literacy, transport, utdanning og kommunikasjon.

Regjeringen har satt i gang en helhetlig og integrert tilnærming til bygdeutvikling som består av følgende:

(i) Utviklingsprogram for landlig infrastruktur under paraplyen av 'Bharat Nirman'.

(ii) Nasjonalt Food for Work-program som fokuserer på sysselsettingsgarantiprogrammet. Arbeidet knytter seg til vannbevaring, landutvikling, flomkontroll og tilkobling til landsbygda.

(iii) Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (1993) med sikte på å gi ytterligere lønnsarbeid i landlige områder og også matsikkerhet.

(iv) Pradhanmantri Gram Sadak Yojana - Lansert i 2000, med mål om å anlegge nye veier og koble rundt en lakh-landsbyer og oppgradere eksisterende veier.

(v) Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (2013) gir - Gratis behandling av barnesykdommer under National Rural Health Mission.

(vi) Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarojgar Yojana - Programmet ble startet i 1999, og har som mål å utvikle egenarbeid blant landsbyboere gjennom blanding av behovsbasert kreditt og subsidier. De tidligere programmene som Intensive Rural Development Program, Million Wells Scheme, Development of kvinner og barn i landlige områder har blitt slått sammen under denne ordningen.

(vii) Nasjonal garantiordning for landlig sysselsetting (2006) -

(a) Landlig boligprosjekt eller gi husly til bygdefolk.

(b) Øke kredittstrømmen til bønder og andre.

(c) Forsikring mot risiko i landbruket.

(d) Å skape marked for landbruksprodukter.

(e) Tilveiebringe markedsinformasjon for landbruket gjennom IT og internettforbindelse.

(f) National Food Security Mission for å øke produksjonen av hvete, ris og pulser.

(g) Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojana for å øke offentlige investeringer i jordbruk.

(viii) Nasjonalt utvidelsessystem for landbruket mot utvidelsestrening til bønder.

Eksempel - Bihar har blitt den første staten i landet som startet e-Krishi Bhavans på blokknivå. Disse fullt datastyrte e-Krishi Bhavans ville gi en pakke med tjenester som teknisk rådgivning, jordprøving og opplæring til bønder. Disse sentrene har internettfasiliteter for å gi oppdatert informasjon om priser på landbruksvarer, ankomster i markedet, værforhold, etc.

(ix) National Horticulture Mission (NHM) blir implementert av Landbruksdepartementet med virkning fra 2005-2006. Målet med oppdraget er å øke produksjonen og produktiviteten av hagebrukskulturer (frukt, grønnsaker og blomster), redusere tap etter høsting, forbedre ernæringssikkerheten, øke eksporten, øke bøndenes inntekter og generere sysselsettingsmuligheter for arbeidsledige.

Blomstereksporten har berørt 100.000 crore innen 2010. Det innenlandske markedet er estimert til omtrent Rs.3000 crore og vokser til 40 prosent per år. Regjeringen setter opp auksjonssentre for blomster i Bengaluru, Kolkata, Noida og Mumbai og forbedrer håndteringsfasilitetene i Goa, Calicut og Coimbatore.

Den siste rapporten fra Central Statistical Organization viser at stater som Bihar, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh og Jharkhand har vist høyere vekst mellom 2004-05 og 2008-09 sammenlignet med hele India-veksten i samme periode. Eksempel-Bihar har registrert en vekst på 12, 10 prosent i den 11. planperioden som avsluttet 2012 sammenlignet med landets gjennomsnittlige vekst på 7, 90 prosent.

Faktor 2. Landbruksutvikling :

Landbruk bidrar til rundt 16 prosent av BNP i landet vårt, men over 65 prosent av landsbygda er avhengig av jordbruk for levebrødet. Landbrukssektoren spiller en viktig rolle i den indiske økonomien ettersom den gir matkorn til den urbane befolkningen og også leverer råvarer som bomull, sukkerrør og arbeidskraft til industrisektoren.

Jordbrukets velstand gir betydelig etterspørsel etter forbruksvarer på landsbygda. Stater som Madhya Pradesh har vist en jordbruksvekst på 9, 04 prosent sammenlignet med hele India-vekstraten på 3, 20 prosent i løpet av den 11. femårsplanen. Madhya Pradesh har 16 lakh hektar under vanning sammenlignet med 7 lakh hektar i 2003.

Følgende initiativer har ført til vekst og utvikling av landbruket:

(a) Utdanning og forskning i landbruket - Etablering av landbrukshøgskoler og forskningsstasjoner har sikret tilgjengeligheten av teknisk arbeidskraft og teknologisk utvikling i landbruket.

(b) Den grønne revolusjonen på slutten av 60-tallet og begynnelsen av 70-tallet fokuserte på å øke utbyttet av avlinger gjennom moderne dyrkingspraksis. Fra et matunderskudd nasjon på midten av 60-tallet ble landet vårt selvforsynt med matproduksjon i 1971, og vi eksporterer nå landbruksprodukter til andre land. Det har vært en økning i disponibel inntekt for bygdefolk.

(c) Beskjæringsdiversifisering - Endring i beskjæringsmønster fra matavlinger til kasseavlinger som bomull, chili, frukt, grønnsaker, blomster og produksjon av frø har gjort det mulig for kultivatorene å øke inntektene.

(d) Diversifisering av landbruket - Med tanke på avhengigheten av monsun, har mange bønder tatt opp produksjon av fjørfe, fiskekultur og meieri for å supplere inntektene.

(e) White Revolution ble initiert av regjeringen for å oppnå selvforsyning i melkeproduksjonen. Politikken planla å produsere melk gjennom landlige kooperativer og flytte de foredlede melkeproduktene til urbane områder. Melkeproduksjonen økte fra 17 millioner tonn i 1950 til 123 millioner tonn i 2012 og økning i landlige inntekter. Den indiske meieriindustrien er nå verdens største, og utgjør en andel på 20 prosent i verdens melkeproduksjon.

For tiden blir bare rundt 20 prosent av den produserte melken foredlet. Etterspørselen etter meieriprodukter kan lett dekkes ved å bearbeide en stor del av produsert melk. Det er muligheter for eksport av meieriprodukter av høy kvalitet, og landlige India kan konverteres til en dollar India.

Eksempel - Gujarat har tatt ledelsen innen meieriutvikling, fulgt av stater som Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra og Tamil Nadu.

Faktor 3. Utvikling av indisk økonomi :

In an underdeveloped country, a large part of national income is contributed by primary sector (Agriculture) and as the country develops, share of primary sector declines and that of secondary (Manufacturing) and tertiary sector (Services) increase.

There has been expansion of industrial and service sectors leading to more employment opportunities. Therefore, Indian economy has undergone a change from underdeveloped economy to a developing economy.

Factor # 4. Rising Aspirations of Rural People and Attraction for High Standard of Living :

The average household income has increased from Rs.52, 000 (2005) to Rs.76, 000 (2010). Further it has been observed that monthly salary earners have high income compared to income from the farm. The rise in income coupled with increased awareness and the need for possess modern goods have influenced the rural marketing environment in the country.

The mobility towards higher income group has been higher in rural area compared to urban. The rural consumer is quickly moving from basic necessities to branded products.

Examples-

(a) The rural youth forms a distinct segment of the population. They are modern, knowledgeable and receptive to changes than their elders. They value material comforts and are quick in adopting fashionable lifestyle. Marketers of two-wheelers, TVs, ready-made garments, soft drinks, cosmetic, etc., are targeting the youth market.

(b) Premium brands like Denim Talc and Pantene have entered the market though current volumes are low.

(c) The consumption of instant noodle, an urban product, is growing fast in rural areas.

Factor # 5. Media Explosion :

Expansion of TV network and more channels have contributed to the growth of rural markets. Through several TV channels and internet, rural consumer is also exposed to the global village.

There are about 6 lakh inhabited villages and about 80 per cent of the villages have .been connected through Village Public Telephones. Ending 2011, there were 929 million mobile subscribers. Out of this 327 million subscribers are from rural (35 per cent) areas. Further there are about 60 lakh public telephones in villages.

The Government plans to reach rural teledensity of 40 per cent by 2014. Regarding internet users, at the end of 2013, the number of total internet subscribers in rural India stood at 68 million (All India 205 million). Total internet subscribers is expected to reach 243 million by 2014. (More than in the US the second largest internet base in the world after China).

(a) Many states have Implemented E-governance projects. Karnataka's Bhoomi Project aims at computerisation of land records and the documents are made available through bhoomi kiosks.

(b) E. Seva, for the payment of utility bills, purchase of travel tickets, issue of birth/ death certificates, etc., initiated by Andhra Pradesh has been received well by consumers in urban and semi-urban areas.

(c) Very attractive schemes are offered by mobile operators for semi-urban and rural consumers.

(d) A key factor that has inhibited the development of rural India has been lack of access to critical information and services. Project I Shakti, an IT-based rural information service has been developed to provide information and services to meet the rural needs. I Shakti kiosk is operated by Shakti entrepreneur and provide information on health, hygiene, legal, veterinary, agriculture, education and employment.

Factor # 6. Private Initiatives :

Private agencies have contributed to growth and development of rural areas through village level programmes.

Examples-

(a) Companies like HUL and Colgate have highlighted the importance of health and hygiene among villagers through school teachers, village meetings and film shows.

(b) Parry Corner, internet access centre initiated by Murugappa group in Tamil Nadu, provides information on farming techniques, bank loans, insurance, availability of agricultural inputs, Government schemes, etc., to rural population.

(c) Seeds, fertiliser and pesticide companies have created awareness among farmers about modern methods of cultivation by conducting extension activities such as farm-to-farm visits, group meetings, demonstrations and film shows.

(d) Launched in 2000 by ITC, e-Choupal has become the largest initiative among all the internet-based interventions in rural India. The farmers can sell their produce, buy a variety of products, receive all the information needed to improve their yields and get a better price for the produce through e-Choupal.

(e) Around 40 per cent of Bharti Airtel's Wireless subscribed base resides in rural areas and for Vodafone, the rural use base is around 50 per cent (2012).

(f) Rural naukari.com provides employment opportunities by creating database of rural human resources.

(g) About 53 per cent of HDFC Bank's branches are in rural and semiurban areas.

Factor # 7. Growth in Income :

Number of households (in million) coming under very rich and well-off categories are high in rural areas.

The average income level has improved due to modern farming practices, industrialisation of rural area, growth of service sector, migration of rural people into cities and remittance of their money, remittance of money by family members settled abroad. Rural income (farm and non-farm) contributes to over 50 per cent of the total income of the country. The farm wages have been rising and increased from Rs.110 per day in 2006-2007 to Rs.154 per day in 2011-2012.

Factor # 8. Growing Rural Market :

Rural markets are growing fast and in many states they contribute to substantial sale of FMCG products.

Rural contribution to FMCG sales is high in states that have significant rural population as shown below:


What is Rural Marketing – Marketing Communication

Marketing communication, and promotion too, poses problems in rural markets. There are many constraints emanating from the profile of the audience and the availability of media.

The literacy rate among the rural consumers being low, the printed word has limited use in the rural context. In addition to the low level of literacy, the tradition bound nature of the rural people, their cultural barriers and taboos and their overall economic backwardness add to the difficulty of the communication task. The situation is further compounded by the linguistic diversity.

Rural communication has to necessarily be in the local language and idiom. The constraints of media further compound the difficulty. It has been estimated that all organized media put together can reach only 30 per cent of the rural population of India. TV is an ideal medium for communicating with the rural masses. But its reach in the rural areas is limited even today.

As regards the print media, the various publications reach only 18 per cent of the rural population. Even in areas reached, the circulation is limited. And the low literacy level of the rural population acts as a further inhibitor in the use of the print media in rural communication. Cinema is relatively more accessible. It has been estimated that 33 per cent of the total cinema earnings in the country come from rural India.

Rural communication has also become quite expensive. For rural communication to be effective, repeat exposures is a must; and if the gap between exposures is long, the message loses its edge during this period. These factors make rural communication more expensive. Rural communication has to go through all the time consuming stages of creating awareness, altering attitudes and changing behaviour. In addition, it also has to work against deep rooted behaviour patterns.

In short, the crux of marketing communication in the rural context is one of finding a media mix that will deliver the required message in a cost- effective manner to a target an audience that is predominantly illiterate.

Overcoming the Constraints and Managing the Communication Task :

A company that seeks a long-term presence in the rural market has to squarely encounter these constraints and find a way of communicating effectively with the rural target audience.

Selecting the Media Mix:

Evidently, in the rural context the firm has to choose a combination of formal and non-formal media.

The possibilities are indicated below:

Media Mix in the Rural Context :

1. Formal / Organized Media-

Jeg. TV

ii. Kino

iii. Press

iv. Other print media

v. Direct mail

vi. Radio

vii. POPs

viii. Utendørs

2. Non-Formal/ Rural Specific Media –

Jeg. Audio-visual vans or publicity vans

ii. Dance-dramas, puppet shows, rural specific art forms like Harikatha and Villupatu performed at village melas and temple festivals

iii. Demonstrations

iv. Study classes

v. Mike announcements, processions.

vi. Caparisoned elephants, decorated bullock carts carrying ad panels.

vii. Music records

viii. House-to-house campaigns by special promotion squads.

ix. Information centers on company's products

1. The Formal Organized Media:

Among the formal/ organized media, TV, Radio, Cinema, POPs and Outdoors have a good scope in the rural context.

Jeg. TV:

With the increase in coverage and the increase in TV ownership in rural areas, TV has the potential to become the primary medium for rural communication. Studies have revealed that as much as 77 per cent of the villages in India now receive TV transmission and 27 per cent of all rural people actually watch TV.

ii. Radio:

The radio is a well-established medium in rural areas. A big expansion in broadcasting facilities has taken place in the country over the years. The availability of radio sets has also expanded. While radio as a medium cannot match TV in potency and effectiveness, in the existing context, radio does have a role in rural communication.

iii. Cinema:

The cinema is a useful medium in the rural context. Most Indian villages have one or more cinema houses. And 29 per cent of all rural people do see cinema as a matter of regular lifestyle and habit. Short feature films with disguised advertisement messages, direct advertisement films and documentaries that combine knowledge and advertisements, can be employed for rural communication.

iv. Outdoors:

The outdoor also lend itself well to rural communication. In fact, presently, many companies are using the outdoor medium imaginatively in their rural communication mix, through hoardings, wall paintings, illuminations and other displays in the rural areas.

v. POPs:

The POPs, point of purchase (or point of sale) promotion tools are also quite useful in the rural markets. The POPs meant for the rural market should be specially designed to suit the rural requirements. More than written words, symbols, pictures and colours must be used in POPs meant for the rural markets. Colour is of particular significance in the rural context. As a general rule, the rural people love bright colours. The effective communicator utilizes such cues.

2. The Non-Formal/Rural Specific Media :

A variety of non-formal media have been developed over the years by rural marketing firms to suit the specific requirements of rural communication. Some of them are interpersonal media and the others mass media.

The more popular ones among them are analyzed below:

Audio-Visual Publicity Vans. The AV unit or the publicity van is very useful for rural, communication. The van is a comprehensive mobile promotion station at the exclusive command of the concerned firm. The firm can exhibit its films and other audio-visual presentations such as slide shows, sound and sight presentations, puppet shows, etc. from this instant promotion station.

A portable shamiana or platform can be carried in the van and used as the stage. Even mini public meetings can be organized using the shamiana. Portable exhibition kits can be carried in the van and exhibitions put up instantly. The van can also be used for sales campaigns in addition to promotion campaigns.

It can also be used for product demonstrations. In short, the van has all the advantages of carrying and delivering a tailor-made communication programme for the chosen target audience.

Naturally, the AV vans are quite popular with rural marketing firms. Practically all the firms in the agri inputs business have their own AV vans all over their respective marketing territories. Firms marketing consumer softs come second in the use of AV vans. Firms marketing consumer durables come third.

In the third category, the efforts of Philips India deserves a special mention. Philips India has very successfully used the AV vans for popularizing their radios in the rural markets.

While the AV vans are very effective tools in rural promotion, the cost is high as the target population is scattered. The cost of reaching an individual customer or prospect through the van works out high.

In the early stages of market development, in particular, the sales generated may not have any relationship to the cost involved in the extensive use of AV vans. But in view of its effectiveness, big companies with I' resources make a conscious decision to use the vans as a long-term market development tool

Syndicated AV vans. In recent years, rural publicity vans have become a purchasable service. Firms which cannot afford to operate publicity vans of their own can utilize the syndicated AV van service offered by independent agencies.

Music records, puppet shows, Harikatha, etc. Music cassettes and records is another effective medium for rural communication. It is an appealing medium and a comparatively inexpensive medium. One complete language group can be reached on a low budget through specially developed records or cassettes. They can be played in cinema houses or in other places where rural people assemble.

People entertainment programmes like puppet shows, dance dramas, Villupattu and Harikathas specially developed for product promotion purpose are now being used in rural markets. These traditional art forms readily render themselves for communication in rural society.

Sales messages can be beautifully blended with folklore to capture the imagination of rural audiences. Village fairs, festivals and 'melas' are ideal venues for projecting these programmes. In certain cases, public meetings also are useful for promotion in the rural context.

Interpersonal media. Interpersonal media have a special merit in the rural context as they facilitate two way communication/interaction. They also bring market feedback to the firm. In many cases, rural people prefer face-to-face communication to mass communication.

Their confidence in the product and the firm and their goodwill towards the firm become stronger through interpersonal approach. Interpersonal media have their V unique ad vantages; they are segment-specific, market-specific and score high when it comes to involvement and participation of the audience. Rural communication can work best when it generates involvement of the target audience.

In the effort to reach out and go beyond the mass media, a firm can establish contact with the audience through fairs and festivals, folk performances and other special events. These points of contact also provide multiple media opportunities. For example, at any fair various media like audio, audio-visual and interpersonal communication could be used.

Group meetings, demonstrations, house-to-house campaigns. Group meetings of customers and prospects are an important component of interpersonal media. The salesmen or the promotion staff of the firm can effectively carry the product messages to the target audience at these meetings. On the spot demonstrations of the products can also be carried out at these meetings.

House-to-house campaigns constitute a handy tool in the rural market. In these campaigns, small squads of staff or persons specially hired for the x specific promotion make house-to-house visits in the rural areas. Several independent teams may be at work at the same time in different parts of the same village. The teams usually carry with them product promotion literature/handouts/product samples, etc.

These campaigns are different from door-to-door selling campaigns. The promotion squads do not engage in the selling job; they only propagate the product. As companies may normally find it difficult to spare their own staff for such elaborate and time consuming work, they may hire the required people on a daily wage basis, train them briefly and use them under the supervision the of company staff.

Assembled and Delivered :

Media selection is not the only aspect that calls for great care in rural communication. The communication strategy as a whole requires unique the rural context. Experience shows that all companies, which have distinct strategies.

The following are a few examples of successful rural promotions which recognized the distinctiveness of the rural market.

en. Market Segmentation in Rural Markets :

In addition to the major problem areas explained above, other aspects like market segmentation and product management also require a unique handling in rural markets. Let us first discuss market segmentation.

It would be unwise for any firm to assume that the rural market is a homogeneous market and can be served with the same product-price- promotion combination. Business firms have to carry out a thorough and data based market segmentation, select the relevant segments as their target market and develop distinctive positioning strategies and marketing mix for the chosen segments. Fortunately, the rural market lends itself well to segmentation. In fact, it can be segmented in a number of ways using different bases.

Jeg. Geographic Segmentation :

In the first place, the rural market can be segmented geographically and different bases can be used for this segmentation. Climate can be the first of these bases; regions endowed with favorable climate are usually more prosperous compared with climatically handicapped regions. Level of irrigation can be another base. Irrigated areas and dry land areas pose different marketing environments.

And within irrigated areas, single crop; double crop and triple crop areas indicate varying levels of prosperity. Level of agricultural advancement in overall terms can also be a base. In this approach, parameters like adoption level of high yielding varieties, adoption level of fertilizer use and standard of agricultural practices will have to be reckoned with.

Yet another form of geographic segmentation can be tried, using 'nearness to a feeder town' as the base. Studies have revealed that rural consumers who are located in the immediate hinterland of a feeder town visit the feeder town at least once a month to sell their produce and/ or to buy their requirements.

Studies have also revealed that in exposure and buying habits, those who are located near a feeder town are different from those living in the remote rural areas. It may be therefore, useful to segment the rural market into consumers who are located closer to a feeder town and consumers who are located away from the feeder towns. Evidently, different

Approaches to marketing can be adopted to serve the two segments. Similarly, nearness to an industrial project center can also be used as a relevant consideration for segmentation. There is a cross flow of population between project centers and rural hinterlands. As such, the project centers act as conduits for the flow of products and ideas. This fact can be used for segmentation.

ii. Demographic Segmentation:

Demographically there are many possibilities of segmenting the rural market. Population spread or population concentration can be one base. About 36 per cent of the rural population lives in seven per cent of the villages in the country and the remaining 64 per cent live in 93 per cent of the villages. The rural market can be segmented on the basis of different size classes with respect to population.

Segmentation using age as the base also has a good scope in rural marketing. About 26 per cent of the rural population falls within the 5-15 years age group. This means that there is a population of more than 15 crore in this age group in the rural market. Similarly, there is a population of more than 20 crore in the age group of 16-30 years in the rural market.

It can serve as a base for segmentation. Surveys have revealed that the younger generation dominates the purchases in the rural market. This is partly due to their greater literacy and exposure and partly due to their changing values and styles. These facts are relevant to the marketing person.

Literacy can be another base for demographic segmentation of the rural market. Though rural India, in general, is characterized by low literacy, there are wide variations in literacy within rural India. For example, while the rural literacy rate in Kerala is 60 per cent that of Bihar is only 12 per cent.

Income too can be a base. In fact, income will be a particularly useful base for segmenting the rural market since income distribution in the market is quite uneven. It will be unwise to assume that all people in a particular rural area will be able to consume a particular product. It will be equally unwise to paint the whole area with the same brush and call it a market with 'low purchasing power.

b. Product Management in Rural Markets :

In product management, the most crucial decision in the rural context is whether the product that is sold in the urban market can be supplied to the rural market as it is or whether it must be adapted. The decision depends on the situation and the nature of the product.

The firm must find out what kind of product is required by the rural consumer and then make and supply the required product. In some cases, the same product may be equally acceptable in both rural and urban areas. In yet other cases, the basic product can be the same but the colour, size and package may have to be especially designed for the rural target group. For example, in the paint.

The Size and Importance of the Rural Market:

The rural market in India is made up of two broad compartments:

(a) The market for consumption goods, including both fast-moving consumer goods and durables; og

(b) The market for agricultural inputs and other investment goods.

Not surprisingly, a survey carried out recently, indicates that the entire demand potential for manufactured goods that exists in this country has been largely untapped. The truth, however, is that not even a fraction of the rural market has been serviced by the industries in the organized sector.


What is Rural Marketing – New Dimensions in India

New problems are emerging due to the invasion of corporations to take over the rural economy. One of them is opening up the rural sector to real estate development corporations, insurance companies, banking and transport, tele-communication, and power to give a surge to investment in rural industry.

The Tatas have already established plants for preservation of perishable vegetables. They have installed micro-processing plants for eradicating bacteria from fresh vegetables to ensure longer shelf life. These are examples of big business houses taking advantage of their position of vantage in acquisition of advanced technology.

At present, agriculture is contributing 40 per cent of GDP, and showing a growth of 11 per cent. The capital industry is experiencing a much higher growth-23 per cent in 1994-95 (April end). The share of the rural sector is 35 per cent in the total investment of the private sector.

Factories for production of fertilizers and pesticides, farm implements and machinery, and motorised trollies are being located in the rural regions. Development would have been faster than, at present, if power and telecommunication facilities had been developed.

A rough estimate of income in rural areas puts it at 1.6 lakh crore per annum, with 11 per cent average growth. Till recently, it was strongly believed that the rural consumption pattern is traditional. The assumption led to the conclusion that the rural economy is static and devoid of dynamism.

The awareness created by electric media began to change the traditional pattern of consumption. Watches, soaps, toothpastes, brushes, sewing machines fridges, TVs, transistors, record players. Hi-fi musical gadgets, allopathic medicines, fancy clothes, care, motorcycles, jeeps and gypsies are common durable consumer items in villages for the upper classes.

The members of the growing opulent class in the rural sector are educated. They are managing farms on commercial lines and have acquired a state for an urban life-style. The houses, interior decoration, designs, architecture furnishing and fixtures resemble those of urban villages.

The farmhouses have the guest rooms and servant quarters and poultries and dairies for the kitchen. The rich farmers are very rich. The economic activities have been vastly diversified from farming to real estate development. Access to big money has come in handy for lavish spending by rich farmers in casinos and elite clubs in cities.

On the contrary, landless workers, forming the major chunk of rural society, are finding it difficult to make both ends meet. Illiteracy, ignorance, deprivation and unemployment are major problems. They can hope rise only if the state comes forward with bold and ambitious plans to fight poverty.

Training and transfer of technology are the only means of rehabilitating landless workers, through providing jobs in industries in rural areas. In the near future, poverty can be turned into prosperity for the masses. NOIDA in Western UP and Unnao in Eastern UP can be cited as examples.

The leather footwear industry established in Unnao is a successful exporter. It employs local workers and pays a steady wage of over Rs. 100/- a day. It takes one week for a worker to learn operating modern machines. NOIDA in Ghaziabad district has developed into a vast industrial zone for electronics. Multinationals are running manufacturing units at NOIDA.

The marketing centres are growing side by side industrial units. Hightech information systems, efficient transportation and steady power supply are going to reduce the physical isolation of villages. There is mounting pressure on industries to disperse from cities.

Information-based marketing will take over the traditional marketing system. Purchases being traditionally confined to spices, salt, tobacco and textiles is no longer relevant. It is unfortunate that rural wealth goes into land and gold. Banks are gaining acceptance among the rural rich to handle and manage their investments.

A family budget allocates 50 per cent of the income to food, clothing and health. Durables consumer goods claim 30 per cent of the annual incomes, and 10 per cent is saved in the case of the upper classes. The new middle class, which has created by modern institutions, spends 30 per cent of the income on this kitchen and 30 per cent on education and clothing.

A substantial 15 per cent goes to health care. A negligible 5 per cent is saved in the form of compulsory contribution to provident fund. It is the white collar working class.


What is Rural Marketing – Organisation and Working

However, a few product of rural industry have a fair share of the market through co-operative dairies, mandis (rural markets) under the control of co-operative marketing societies, and co-operative warehousing societies, to cite a few. By looking at mandis in different states, some salient features of the rural market can be deduced from their organisation and working.

In the first instance, co-operative marketing societies are formed with membership drawn from among the farming class. The membership fees meet the cost of organisation and administration. The office-bearers are elected representatives. Policies are formulated by the general body, and the executive powers are vested in the management committees.

The day-to-day working of mandis is entrusted to the management committee. It exercises its power to supervise control and manage the marketing activities. The Food Corporation of India (FCI) is the biggest procuring agency in the public sector. It deputes its staff to procure cereal food items, jute and cotton for its buffer- stocks. The network of mandis is widespread in the country. Farmers get full value for their produce.

However, vegetables, fruits, flowers and other perishable items have to be transported to private mandis. The Azadpur Vegetable and Fruit Mandi in Delhi is the biggest mandi is Asia. It is managed by private traders. New arrivals at the time of harvest are purchased by private traders at low prices.

Most of the produce is stored in warehouses. After the harvest, the prices usually rule high at the expense of the fanners as well as the consumers. In the long run, this act's as a disincentive to undertaking extensive cultivation of vegetables and fruits. Co-operative societies have yet to show their competitive strength in perishable items.

The problem is amenable to solution through provision of warehousing facilities by the cooperative sector. Setting up warehouses being expensive, individual fanners may not find it easy to finance it. Besides, farmers are not conversant with the organisation and management of warehouses.

Rural economic development is thwarted by the illiteracy and lack of technical know-how. The adult literacy programme and some community projects have the twin object of eradicating illiteracy and developing technical know-how.


What is Rural Marketing – Rural Consumers and their Behaviour

There are following points to understand and review regularly related to the rural consumers and their behaviours:

Jeg. Who are the rural consumers?

ii. Their habits,

iii. Education level,

iv. Standard of living,

v. Quality consciousness,

vi. Earnings and its sources,

vii. Collection of this information ie, rural market research.

These features are self-explanatory. But their collection mode ie market research is very significant job for an organisation to know the basic requirements of the rural consumers and their behaviours so as to promote the sales of their products in the rural markets.

The best method would be to send their own sales and marketing representatives regularly to the rural areas and have direct contacts with the people to know their needs and expectations besides about their other information as listed above.

Accessing the Rural Markets :

Access to the rural markets may be directly or through the private sales and marketing channels. These channels may be wholesalers or retailers. The wholesalers or retailers should have their strong sales and marketing supports and facilities so as to cover the rural markets effectively.

Customisation for Rural Market :

Present practice by the companies dealing in the consumer goods (FMCG) is to take the rural market very seriously. They have realized that there is a great need to understand the rural market, the people, their needs and usage of products. Indian as well as MNCs are innovating and customizing their products for successful operation in the rural market. These companies have realized that urban products need to be changed to the rural consumers' tastes and satisfaction.

Companies who are very successful in the rural markets are; Ghadi detergent, Priyagold biscuits, Cavinkare. Global giants like GE, Honeywell, Intel and Dupoint are all spending money and time in understanding the specific needs of the rural consumers and customizing their products accordingly.

Opportunities, Issues and Challenges of the Rural Market :

Rural accounts for 55% of India's total income. The number of middle class households in rural nearly equals urban and is expected to grow six times from 32 million in 2005 to 208 million by 2020. Rural accounts for 65% of the country spending. So there is a huge market waiting in the rural. For example by 2012, rural share of mobile subscribers will be 60% with 440 million subscribers from the current share of 31%.

At the same time, there are issues and challenges in the rural. Some of the issues are; road infrastructure, communication, electricity etc.


What is Rural Marketing – Importance: Future Prospective, Increase in per Capita Income, Media Effect, Growing Literacy, Social Awareness and a Few Others

In India rural marketing was neglected in early days. The obstacles were there seen as, inaccessibility, low purchasing power of rural customers, lack of distribution facilities in rural areas and very less presence of media. However, the complete transformation in rural scenario is witnessed, because of many important factors like media penetration, growing percentage of Literacy, increase in social awareness, improved farm management, road connectivity, expansion in telecom network, improved banking and credit facility, increasing population.

Importance of rural marketing can be stressed with the help of following points:

1. Future Prospective :

As far as India is concerned every company in India is now aware of the truth that sale can be significantly improved with targeting rural sector because of rise in the overall standard of living and want for purchasing more and more products with different varieties is also increasing day by day.

With this study, every organization is setting some special teams of marketing managers responsible for studying, analyzing, implementing marketing strategies in rural areas and thus boosts the sales figures rapidly.

Nokia is the best example of how marketing in rural area can affect sales and create a Brand value even more than the urban or metros.

Nokia is one of the most sought brand in rural area even if it's share in total mobile companies have reduced with the aggressive strategy implemented by Samsung mobiles. In villages people buy products on the basis of trust and faith and not on technical specialties .

2. Increase in Per Capita Income:

Country spotted increase in per capita income even in rural sector which resulted in the rising demand for the various product including consumer durables and even luxuries products.

Rural sector is so attracting the organizations that they are spending millions of rupees for marketing alone in the rural areas.

3. Boosting of Overall Progress of Company:

Rural marketing with proper marketing techniques can create magical results and thus every corporate organization is keen in making such marketing and promotion mixes useful for the product sale and increase in profits.

Many loss making companies have changed their focus from urban areas to rural sector by changing some product lines and attracting rural people which resulted in their loss making status to profit seeking and even profit making corporations.

Thus rural marketing cannot be overlooked because future lies in this sector and every company must know this truth.

4. Media Effect:

Media penetration in rural area is one of the most important factors in creating awareness about products availability, change & updates in technology & current market trend. People have started to use advanced equipments for farming, home appliances, electronic gadgets and brandied clothes. Refrigerator, iron, microwaves, mobile phones, two wheelers, four wheelers are becoming mandatory things in rural area.

Advertisement on Television gets and radio leaves a big impact on the people. Most of the companies take an advantage of the customer behavior and advertise their product accordingly. Following the stardom is one of the trends which are followed by a large percentage of rural youth. This is the reason why companies can offer bollywood stars or sports persons (successful) to advertise their product.

TV entertainment is being used more effectively than often seen on Television set. Most of the events shown on the television are result of an advertisement.

5. Growing Literacy:

As a result of many government policies and promotions for creating an awareness of education in rural areas the literacy rate is constantly increasing. Literacy especially in youth of rural areas, is helping them to earn more money in available budget. People have started to use advanced equipments for farming and gaining more profit. Reducing the manpower in farming sector is creating new opportunities.

Young people get jobs in urban areas and others have started various small scale business. Hence the average income per family is increasing rapidly so the standard of living is also going high about quality of products and seemed to be rising about branded products. Durability and price are being considered while purchasing.

6. Social Awareness:

Change in lifestyle is mostly because of copying the lifestyle people see and people do, it's observed that people play most important role in advertisements of the product. When a customer purchases a product he tells about it to everybody, he meets or at least few of them. Whatever experience of customer has had with the product is automatically spread. This factor is one of the important factors in marketing.

While living in a society people are more careful about their behavior, and the way they carry themselves. Nobody wants to look less impressive than others. They spend a large percentage of their earning on maintaining their status in the society. For maintaining the status they purchase products which at least match the market trend.

7. Improvement in Farming :

Population of world is increasing rapidly. India is the second largest in the world population. To fulfill the need of food of this much large population a lot of research has been done on farming equipments and techniques which increases productivity. Farmers have adapted themselves with the new techniques and equipments.

Eventually with the help of latest technologies and new ideas farmers have started to make more profit. Hence the market for the advanced farming equipments and market for luxurious products is also improving the overall status in rural market.

8. Improvement in Infrastructure and Expansion of Telecom Network :

A government scheme like, “Pantapradhan gram sadak yojana” has helped people in rural areas to get connected with urban areas. Which at the end helps in creating more business opportunities and more healthy distribution chain in rural areas. Network providers have reached to the rural areas and have captured a big market. Because of easy telecommunication and use of advanced phones, people in rural area are always connected to the world. They get the same updates about market trends and newly launched products as urban people.

9. Improved Banking & Credit Facility:

Organization in banking sectors has realized the opportunities of profitable business in rural areas. Most of the rural areas are being captured by nationalized as well as small banks. Rural people get the loans easily from the banks as banking organizations have lower the criteria's and most of farmers put mortgages to get the loan. Getting financial assistance in difficult times or to start new business ends with profit to both parties, banks & customers.


What is Rural Marketing – Constraints : Scattered Markets, Physical Distribution, Channel Management, Sales Force Management, Rural Promotion and a Few Others

Rural India lives in villages with varying customs, languages, culture, education and prosperity and most marketers are not ready to face the same.

There are many reasons why companies are reluctant to explore the rural markets:

(a) Resources – The companies require resources in terms of men, money and materials to enter the rural markets.

(b) Long-term Plan – Even if they have the resources, it may not be possible to increase the sales, market share and profits within a short period and therefore companies have to treat such expenses as investment for business development in rural areas.

(c) Management Support – While the top management may be committed to development of rural markets, many of the junior level staff may not have the knowledge, skills, attitude to explore the rural markets and they continue to focus on urban marketing.

Adi Godrej, Chairman of Godrej has rightly observed — “The rural consumer is discerning and the rural market is vibrant. At the current rate of growth, it will soon outstrip the urban market. The rural market is no longer sleeping but we are.”

Industry Survey (2010) of over 100 companies shows that half of the senior executives are keen to tap the rural market. However, they are concerned about lack of infrastructure facilities like road connectivity, teledensity, availability of skilled manpower and seasonal demand.

While rural markets offer tremendous opportunities for the marketers, it is not possible to take a sizeable share of the market in the short run due to the following reasons:

1. Scattered Markets :

The rural market consists of about 6 lakh villages and 833 million consumers. The urban population of 377 million is concentrated in about 7, 000 towns and cities. Reaching such a widely scattered consumers and retailers over a large geographical area is a challenging job indeed.

2. Physical Distribution :

(a) Transportation – It involves moving goods from one place to another. The infrastructure is very poor in our country. The roads are in bad condition and 20 per cent of the villages are not connected by road. In interior villages, animal carts are used to carry goods. This type of transport is slow and inadequate. Other problems are non-availability of rail transport, poor bus/lorry services in villages.

(b) Warehousing – Warehousing includes receiving the goods, despatching small consignments and documentation. No 'pucca' godown facilities are available in rural areas.

(c) Communication – We have 1, 40, 000 post offices in rural and semi-urban areas. Post and telegraph system is not well developed in interior rural areas. Even today 20 per cent of the villages are without telephone facility.

3. Channel Management :

(a) Multi-tier System is requited to service rural customers.

Example – Company depot/C&F Agent in the city, distributor in town, stockist at Mandi/Taluka level, wholesaler in feeder market and retailer in the village result in increase in cost of distribution.

(b) No Scope for Manufacturer Owned Outlets – Low volumes do not justify own showrooms.

(c) Limited Availability Retailers – It is uneconomical to run retail shops due to low sales turnover in rural areas. In many markets, retailers are not just available. Practically, there are no shops in the villages having less than 500 population and there are about 2 lakh villages under this category.

(d) Fewer Brands – Studies conducted have shown that the rural retailer keeps less number of brands of products due to limited sales in villages.

(e) Inadequate Banking and Credit Facility – Banking facilities are inadequate in rural areas. There are no banks in villages having less than 2, 000 population. Marketers find it difficult to collect funds through bank. Further, the consumers and merchants are not able to avail credit facilities.

4. Sales Force Management:

The salesperson plays an important role in promoting the products through direct contacts with the customers.

Requirements of a rural salesperson are given below:

(i) Fluency in local languages.

(ii) Capacity to work for extended hours.

(iii) Ability to undertake long journeys.

(iv) Has to put up with inadequate boarding/lodging facilities.

(v) Knowledge of values, beliefs and perceptions that influence the behaviour of consumers.

(vi) Preferably from local area.

(vii) Knowledge of different types of rural customers.

(viii) Selling skills.

(ix) Knowledge of competition.

(x) General knowledge about agriculture.

Considering communication facilities, location of personnel in small towns and the large number of salesmen required to service rural market, sales force management is a very challenging for marketers.

5. Rural Promotion:

Rural marketing requires special promotion efforts, such as AVP van, demonstrations, and group meetings due to the unique characteristics of the market. The media and the methods have to be formulated accordingly.

Example – In urban markets, print media has become very popular. The same is not very suitable for rural markets due to low literacy level. There are 18 recognised languages and 850 different dialects. Communicating with these rural consumers hence becomes very difficult.

6. Underdeveloped People and Market :

The rural markets are highly scattered and there are barriers in reaching the rural consumers due to the following:

(i) Low literacy

(ii) Low income

(iii) Seasonal demand

(iv) Price sensitivity

(v) Low quality-consciousness

(vi) Traditional practices, and

(vii) Low reach of mass media.


What is Rural Marketing – Opportunities i n India: Low Penetration Rate, Impact of Globalisation, Increase in Literacy Rate, Low Penetration Rate and a Few Others

The rural market has been growing gradually over the past few years. The saving to income percentage in rural areas is 30% higher than urban areas. At present approximately 53% of all FMCG and 59% of Consumer durables are being sold in rural areas. The immense potential of the rural market can be realised, if the marketers understand this market. The huge untapped needs of the rural mass, the growing rural economy and the increasing media penetration and brand awareness make this market extremely attractive to marketers.

So Rural markets are providing a lot of opportunities to the marketers.

Major opportunities available in rural markets are as follows:

1. Increase in disposable Income and Purchasing Power :

Among the important factors contributing to the opportunities in the rural markets for the marketer, the continuous rise in rural income is the most important. More agricultural production and substantial increases in the disposable incomes of rural people and countrywide progress have been catalyzed by many rural development schemes implemented by government.

The agricultural development programs of the government have helped to increase income in the agriculture sector by increasing the productivity and better price for agriculture products, thus enhancing the purchasing power in rural markets. Continuous government efforts for narrowing income inequalities have expanded the market for consumer goods by bringing into its fold newer segments.

Increase in income and purchasing power has provided the marketer greater opportunity to expand their operations in rural markets.

2. Increase in Population and Hence Increase in Demand :

The rural market in India is vast and scattered and offers a lot of opportunities in comparison to the urban sector. It covers the maximum population and regions and thereby, the maximum number of consumers.

742 million Indians constituting 138 million households reside in 6, 38, 365 villages (Census 2001), the size of rural market itself speaks of its potential. The current marketing environment and economic scenario have brought the corporate under contemporary roofs of modern India, which is challenging the current standards of segmenting, targeting and reaching the customers. Increased population lead to the increase in demand for the products of the marketer.

3. Saturation of Urban Market :

The urban market is reaching towards saturation point which brings out the urgent need to focusing on rural markets. Intensified competition in urban market increases costs and reduces market share. The rural markets are therefore increasingly attractive in relation to urban markets. The automobile market brings this out clearly. Rajdoot motorcycles, Bajaj Scooters or Ambassador Cars find ready acceptance in rural markets as compared to urban markets, where there is a proliferation of brands.

Saturation in urban market is a signal for marketers to make strategies for tapping rural markets.

4. Accessibility to Markets due to Improvement in Infrastructure Facilities :

Infrastructure is improving rapidly in rural areas which lead to easy access to these markets. The pro-rural long term policies and programmes (for example, Bharat Nirman, NRHM) in the last five years have brought with them the promise of sustainable infrastructure and social development of rural India, bringing rural markets back to the centre-stage of the corporate world. In 2005, the introduction of the flagship programme, Bharat Nirman which focused on an all-round infrastructure development, has brought about a remarkable transformation in the rural landscape.

The programme aims at building infrastructure and basic amanities in rural areas to reduce the gap between rural and urban areas. It covers rural housing, irrigation, potential, drinking water, rural roads, electrification and rural telephony. The road network had facilitated a systemized product distribution system to villages.

5. Lesser Dependence on Agriculture and Monsoon :

There was a time when market predictions were made on the basis of the state of the monsoon but this trend has changed over the years. There is large non farming sector, which generates almost 45% of the rural wealth. Due to this rural consumer need not be totally dependent on agriculture for their income. Corporate India is also learning to live with the uncertainty of rain.

6. Low Penetration Rate :

Penetration rate in rural India is very low. Low penetration indicates the existence of unsaturated market, which are likely to expand as the income level rises as awareness increases. It provides an excellent opportunity for the industry players in form of vastly untapped markets.

7. Increasing Sale of Branded Products :

Sales of branded goods have already overtaken those of non-branded products in villages. Rural consumers are also becoming aware of the branded products and also have started using branded products which provide a vast opportunity for a rural marketer.

8. Impact of Globalisation :

The impact of globalization will be felt in rural India as much as in urban. But, it will be slow. It will have its impact on target groups like farmers, youth and women. Farmers, today keep in touch with the latest information and maximize both ends. Animal feed producers no longer look at Andhra Pradesh or Karnataka. They keep their cell phones constantly connected to global markets.

Surely, price movements and products' availability in the international market place seem to drive their local business strategies. On youth, its impact is on knowledge and information and while on women it still depends on the socio-economic aspect. The marketers who understand the rural consumer and fine tune their strategy are sure to reap benefits in the coming years.

In fact, the leadership in any product or service is linked to leadership in the rural India except for few lifestyle-based products, which depend on urban India mainly. Due to effect of globalisation, there is a wide scope of rural marketing.

9. Increase in Literacy Rate :

The rural literacy rate has improved in recent past which have increased the awareness among rural consumers. They are also interested in developing the market in rural area. Rural people have started to go to urban areas for higher education. Even government has introduced various schemes for rural education. Awareness has increased and the farmers are well informed about the world around them. They are also educating themselves on the new technology around them and aspiring for a better lifestyle.

10. Increasing the Role of Media :

Mass media has created the increased demand for goods and services in rural areas which provides an ample opportunity to rural marketer for earning profits. Radio and TV have revolutionized the entire marketing scenario. Practically TV is more effective in conveying and injecting an idea. TV has changed the rural folk's outlook, attitude and lifestyles.

It penetrates into rural areas smoothly and makes the work of sales personnel easy. Radio covers 62 percent of urban and 40 percent of the rural population. TV covers 80 percent of the urban and 35 percent of the rural population. Doordarshan is being overshadowed by cable network. The net effect of increasing coverage of audio-video media is greater and it provides greater exposure to modern life-styles and brands.

Media impact on rural customers is high. This is changing their lifestyles, thereby increasing their consumption of non-food items. Interest arousal capability of TV is high. Acceptance of brands is high and attitude has changed due to media exposure. Media has reached to rural area, so it becomes easier for marketer to sell product in rural area.

11. IT Penetration in Rural India :

Today's rural children and youth will grow up in an environment where they have information access to education opportunities, government schemes, mandi prices, exam results, career counseling, job opportunities, weather forecasts, bank loans, worldwide news and information, livelihood options etc., If television could change the language of brand communication in rural India, affordable web connectivity through various types of communication hubs will surely impact the currency of information change.

As the electronic ethos and IT Culture moves into rural India, the possibility of change is becoming visible.

12. Increase in Government Initiatives :

Various schemes of Government like Kisan Credit Card helped the farmers to take loans for fertilizers, seeds etc. This enables them to produce more and increase their income. Government schemes like IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme), JRY (Jawahar Rozgar Yojna) and TRYSEM (Training Rural Youth for Self-Employment) have created new employment opportunities in Rural India.

As a result, very few rural people are now flocking to urban cities. There is also large inflow of investment for rural development programmes from the government. In addition to this, the government's stress on self-sufficiency resulted in various schemes like operation flood (White Revolution), Blue Revolution, Yellow Revolution etc., has resulted in the production of 15 million tons of milks per annum.

13. Rural Marketing is not Expensive :

Though rural consumers are dispersed, reaching them is costly but new research indicate that selling in rural India is not expensive. Expenses on campaign like advertisement in newspaper, television etc. is lower in rural areas as compared to urban areas.


 

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